By Rita Yu
Source: CSR Asia
Coffee production and consumption have risen considerably over the past few decades, with 2.25 billion cups of coffee being consumed daily worldwide. But the future availability and price of coffee are going to be impacted by climate change and farmers who grow it may lose their livelihoods.
Coffee is cultivated mostly in developing countries along the “Bean Belt” – which comprises around 70 countries, including Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, Ethiopia and Indonesia. The coffee industry is worth around US$19 billion in 2015, and supports the livelihoods of 125 million people. Over 50% of global production comes from Brazil, Vietnam, and Colombia.
The more prestigious Arabica coffee beans (Coffea Arabica) – grown in tropical highlands of Central and Latin America, Vietnam, Indonesia, India and East Africa – accounts for about 70% of global supply. Robusta (Coffea canephora) – grown in low-lying areas – are used in espressos and instant coffee market. Arabica performs best at 18–21°C; above 23°C, the plant grows too fast, compromising yield, aroma and flavour. Robusta is less heat-sensitive, faster to produce fruit, and more disease-resistant, although its lower quality fetches a lower price.